Monitoring and Reporting of GHG Emissions


Effective monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of GHG emissions is critical for tracking progress towards the emission reduction targets. An ongoing EU twinning project, besides ongoing activities of the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection, aims to create a MRV system in Serbia.

As Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the EU and its Member States are required to report annually on their GHG emissions. In addition to GHG inventories, countries have to report regularly on their climate change policies and measures through National Communications. The annual EU GHG inventory report is prepared by the European Environment Agency each spring.

GHG monitoring mechanism
The EU inventory is based on Member States’ monitoring of their own GHG emissions. This national monitoring is required under the GHG monitoring mechanism, which was established in 1993 and revised in 2004 as part of the EU’s preparations for meeting its Kyoto Protocol emissions reduction target.

The key objectives of the 2004 Monitoring Mechanism Decision were to:

  • Monitor all anthropogenic GHG emissions covered by the Kyoto Protocol in the Member States;
  • Evaluate progress towards meeting GHG reduction commitments under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol;
  • Implement the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol as regards national programmes, greenhouse gas inventories, national systems and registries of the EU and its Member States, and the relevant procedures under the Kyoto Protocol;
  • Ensure the timeliness, completeness, accuracy, consistency, comparability and transparency of reporting by the EU and its Member States to the UNFCCC Secretariat.

Towards an enhanced monitoring mechanism
A new Monitoring Mechanism Regulation (MMR) entered into force in July 2013. It aims to improve the quality of data reported, help the Member States keep track of progress towards meeting their emission targets for 2013-2020 and facilitate further development of the EU climate policy mix.

This new Regulation is the instrument, which provides the legal basis to implement revised domestic commitments set out in the 2009 climate and energy package, as well as to ensure timely and accurate monitoring of the progress in implementation of these commitments.

The MMR also introduces new elements, such as reporting of:

  • Member States’ and the EU’s low-carbon development strategies;
  • Financial and technical support provided to developing countries, and commitments arising from the 2009 Copenhagen Accord and 2010 Cancún Agreements;
  • Member States’ use of revenues from the auctioning of allowances in the EU emissions trading system (EU ETS). Member States have committed to spend at least half of the revenue from such auctions on measures to fight climate change in the EU and third countries;
  • Emissions and removals from land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF);
  • Member States’ adaptation to climate change;
  • Specific monitoring and reporting provisions for companies related to emissions from installations covered by the EU ETS are covered by separate implementing legislation.

The Regulation covers reporting from the EU and its Member States required under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. It covers emissions of all greenhouse gases, recognized by the documents, from relevant sectors. Sectors covered by the EU ETS Directive are: Energy, Industry and Air Transport, while MMR Regulation includes emissions of GHG gasses from all other relevant sectors.

Establishment of the MMR system in Serbia

In order to contribute to enforcement of EU Acquis in a climate change field and fulfilment of obligations under the UNFCCC, the Government of Serbia has launched an EU twinning project “Establishment of a mechanism for implementation of the MMR”. The main goal of the project is the establishment and maintaining of a system and processes for collection and storage of and report on climate change related data and information. The project is expected to start in the first half of 2015 and will be implemented in the period of two years. The projects is funded from the EU Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA). Read more about the project.